Muhammad Akbar Bhat alias Zaffar Akbar Bhat was born in a well off family of Late Haji Abdul Jabbar Bhat in Shankerpora Bagh-e- Mehtab Srinagar in 1964. He got his basic education in his locality. Having passed the Secondary School Examination (SSCE) in B K Pora Higher Secondary School Zaffar got admission in Jawahir Nagar Higher Secondary School.
In 1985 he got job in Soura Institute of Medical Sciences and besides the service Bhat continued his studies.
Multidimensional Activities In Ongoing Freedom Struggle
Zaffar Akbar Bhat was affiliated with Islami Jamait Tulaba (IJT) and then to Tehreek-i-Tulaba. Zaffar Akbar Bhat became the basic member of Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) in 1985. On the basis of his dedication and commitment with the organization he was nominated as Nazim-i-Halqa (Organizer) of a local unit of Jamaat-e-Islami in his area.
Zaffar Akbar Bhat patronized three schools of Jamaat-e-Islami in his native area. Being a vibrant and distinguished member of Jamaat-e-Islami he remained close to the prominent leaders e.g. Syed Sallauhdin , Syed Ali Shah Geelani , Muhammad Ashraf Sehrai, G M Bhat, Muhammad Ismail Bhat , Shamsul Haq, Ghulam Rasool Dar and others.
Mr Bhat was also close associate of prominent freedom loving leaders like , Shabir Ahmad Shah, Mian Abdul Qayoum ,Maqbool Allie , Abdullah Bangro and Ejaz Ahmad Dar.
In 1987, Zaffar Akbar Bhat played a pivotal role when all the anti-India organizations particularly students organizations joined hands together and raised freedom slogans during the Jag Mohan regime that compelled the people of Kashmir to back the liberation movement.
While keeping the momentum of freedom struggle up,In March 1987 the pro freedom parties gathered on single platform namely Muslim United Front (MUF) aimed for demanding the right of self determination through the legislative assembly of Occupied Jammu and Kashmir. In MUF’s election campaign Zaffar Akbar Bhat was the Chief Organizer of Chadoora Constituency. Unfortunately India rigged these elections that compelled freedom loving youth to launch an underground armed struggle against illegal Indian occupation since all the democratic means had failed.
This was an indigenous movement and Zaffar Akbar Bhat became one of the founder members of the ongoing freedom struggle. On the basis of prominent role during the MUF’s election campaign Zaffar Akbar Bhat was arrested. After the detention of three months Bhat was released.
In connection with current freedom struggle Zaffar Akbar Bhat was arrested in Soura Institute of Medical Sciences along with his colleagues. Having spent six months in different jails and torture centres Bhat was released and he got married.
On September 1989 when Hizbul Mujahideen’s basic structure was formed under the command of Master Ahsan Dar and 13 other commanders among them Zaffar Akbar Bhat was one of the vibrant.
He crossed the Line of Control (LoC) and reached Muzaffarabad where he met Muhammad Maqbool Allaie and Ashraf Dar to strengthen the organization in Azad Kashmir. During the stay in Muzaffarabad he worked a lot near the Line of Control to make the Hizb stronger.
On September 1990 his wife was martyred that shocked him a lot.
On 5th Nov 1990 Chief Patron of HM Syed Salluahdin arrived Muzaffarabad. While keeping the requirement of the battle field in view he found Zaffar Akbar Bhat the suitable commander for his area.
On 15th of November 1990, Zaffar Akbar Bhat crossed the LoC and commanded hundreds of Mujahideen in Budgam area.
In October 1991, Syed Sallauhdin crossed LoC and reorganized the structure of HM while appointing Zaffar Akbar Bhat District Commander of Srinagar on the basis of his tremendous performance during District Commander tenure in Budgam.
In August 1992 Zaffar Akbar Bhat was arrested during a crackdown in Machoowa Srinagar . He was severely tortured in Joint Interrogation Centre (JIC) Badami Bagh , JIC Budgam and then shifted to Kot Balwal Jail Jammu and was brought to Central Jail Srinagar. During his detention he reorganized various fellows to rejoin the freedom struggle.
In March 1994 he was released after two years detention and immediately he joined as a Divisional Commander of HM for the Central Division on the directions of Hizb Surermo Syed Sallauhdin.
In Septumber 1994 he once again crossed LoC and reached Muzaffarabad where he stayed till 1999 and served the movement to his best ability.
In August 1999 he once again arrived Srinagar and Bhat took the charge of Divisional Commander of Central Division of Kashmir.
 On 24th July 2000 an atmosphere of trust was created when the largest indigenous militant organization HM declared unilateral ceasefire in Occupied Jammu and Kashmir. Zaffar Akbar Bhat along with his Operational Chief Abdul Majid Dar and other commanders addressed a press conference in Srinagar. International community, world powers and NGOs welcomed the ceasefire and stressed both India and Pakistan to respond positively and avail the opportunity to solve the Kashmir dispute once for all.
When the modalities of the ceasefire were being worked out between Hizbul Mujahideen and Government of India that how the effects of ceasefire will bring a considerable relief to the people of Kashmir. On the same occasion certain circles with vested interest disturbed the whole process while sabotaging the historical initiative taken in the direction of achieving peace with honorable solution of Kashmir dispute.
Ultimately HM Supreme Commander withdrew the ceasefire that ended on the split of Hizbul Mujahideen and provided an opportunity to Zaffar Abkar Bhat and his colleagues to form a moderate organization.
On the basis of moderate ideology Zaffar Akbar Bhat reorganized the jail released freedom fighters, Kashmiri Youths and others on one Platform, who wish to participate, in any way, in the Liberation Movement of Kashmir and formed a political organization under the name of Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement (JKSM ).Thank God, in a short time this organization has been established on, practically all, at city and tehsil levels and thousands of persons have been allied with it. The goal is getting telescoped. The only need is to widen constancy of struggle and measure of patience.
 Nowadays, JKSM is playing a vital role in (APHC) to highlight Kashmir issue
At every corner.
The chairman of JKSM Zaffar Akbar Bhat did not serve the movement alone but his family also suffered a lot. His younger brother Tufail Altaf Bhat is also one the basic commander of Ongoing Movement and is playing an active role in (APHC) Azad Kashmir Chapter. Zaffar Akbar’s wife Hasina Akbar, sister-in-law Mehmooda Ghani , elder brother Haji Abdul Ghani Bhat , cousins Abdul Latif Chaha , Farooq Ahmad Lone , Manzoor Ahmad Lone , Mushataq Ahmad Bhat , Abdul Qayyum Shiekh and so many other family members who laid their lives for the noble cause of the right of self-determination.
Formation of JKSM
The constitution of Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement (JKSM) was presented on May to 29, 2002, before the members of the organisation. After detailed discussion, it was unanimously adopted on 19 Rabi-ul-Awwal 1423.i.e.June 01, 2002, when it was but to practice.
Aims and Objectives
  • The target of Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement is to free the state of Jammu and Kashmir from the unjust usurpation of India being the internationally recognized disputed territory having been recognized as such by the U.N. charter as well as that of NAM (Non Aligned Movement) .
  • The Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement makes every effort to mollify the state of uncertainty in the area and will struggle to explore permanent solution of the Kashmir problem in accordance with the wishes of a kashmiri people.
Organisational Structure
  • Chairman
  • Vice Chairmen
  • Secretary General
  • Secretary Finance
  • Spokesman
Institutions of Organisation
  • Supreme Council
  • Executive Council
  • Working Committee
  • International Diaspora
JKSM in Sacrifices
On August 2000, Farooq Mircha a born politician and a very close associate of
Abdul Majid Dar was kidnapped and assassinated before the formation of Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement on 24th July 2001, Commander Masood a writer an intellectual and deputy of Abdul Majid Dar was killed in custody by security forces before the announcement of Salvation Movement.  On 3rd August 2002, one of Dar Sb's solleagues namely Asgar Abdur Rehman was picked and killed by unseen hands at Sumbal road.
  • On 3rd March 2003, Abul Majid Dar was assassinated by unknown persons at his residence Sopore (Baramulla)
  • On 18th May 2004, Muhammad Ayub Banday, the Vice Chairman of JKSM was killed by some unknown armed men in a public meeting.
  • On 24th October 2004, Rouf Rasool Bhat Chief Spokesman of JKSM was killed by unknown gunmen at his residence. On January 2005, Active worker of JKSM Abdur Rasheed Dar (Sameer Khan) was killed by unidentified gunmen at his residence Puhroo, Chadoora.
  • On 27th Jan 2005, Sheikh Shabir Ahmad was picked up and killed in custody by 29 RR Pattan camp, on 5th April 2005, Gh Rasool Khan Tehsil President of Pahalgam of JKSM was killed by some unknown gunman at his residence Pahalgam.
  • On 14th May 2005, elder brother of Zaffar Akbar Bhat (Chairman JKSM), a famous businessman and social leader Hajji Abdul Ghani Bhat was shot dead by unknown militants at his office Bagh-i-Mehtab.
  • On 17th May 2005, at residence of Hajji Abdul Ghani Bhat, when APHC leaders were addressing a condolence meeting, a hand grenade was thrown at huge gathering by unknown persons in presence of security forces.
  • Two civilians (M. Aslam Khan and Imteyaz Ahmad Dar) were killed on the spot and 32 were injured.
  • On 23rd May 2005, Mushtaq Ahmed Mir Alias Mushtaq Baba, District President (JKSM) of Islamabad was shot dead by unidentified militants at General Bus Stand Islamabad.                                                                         This is how a political and a moderate organization is targeted and its cadres are assassinated one by one. It is not understood as to what cause is being served by eliminating the real force of the current movement who upheld the ideas of peace, reconciliation and negotiation rather than the violence and confrontation.
Kashmir Dispute And The Role of JKSM
Kashmir is known all over the world as the paradise on earth because of its scenic beauty of grand and magnificent mountains. The geographical position of Kashmir has a distinct and in some respects a unique character. the state of Jammu and Kashmir encompasses mountainous region of 86,000 sq. mile's with borders touching the Soviet, China, Afghanistan and Pakistan. After the British rule when India and Pakistan emerged as the two sovereign countries in 1947, the Jammu and Kashmir state became the disputed territory between the two countries. Three wars were fought on this territory instead of the fact that the case is pending before the United Nations and resolutions thereof, stand by.
The fate of Jammu Kashmir is a long standing issue in the UN Resolution and the issue has become the flash point between the two nuclear powers of neighbouring South Asian countries. It is the prime dispute that has time and on worsened the relationship of the two countries similar culture and heritage. Both India and Pakistan are claiming the disputed territory as their integral part since six decades so as to rule the same and the politicians and the religious fanatics of both the countries exploited the situation of Jammu and Kashmir for their political benefit and survival. With the course of time religious, cultural and ethnical hatreds between the people of both the countries were created and the armed race between the two countries touches its peak.
The issue of Jammu and Kashmir remained unresolved since 1947. Neither the UN resolutions were implemented nor the agreements between the two countries were honoured and the Jammu and Kashmir issue become more and more complex and cause of tension for the whole world. The peace measures if any between the two countries were always at the verge of collapse due to the rigid approach of both the countries over the dispute.
As a matter of fact this chronic issue has never been addressed properly neither by India and Pakistan nor the International community has over been bold to settle the issue. Consequently, the unresolved issue rendered the people of Kashmir to become sandwiched between the confrontation of India and Pakistan. Obviously, ignoring the intensity and need for a just resulting of the issue, the world community is committing the crime of ignorance and silence.
 No doubt the ongoing-armed struggle has drawn the attention of the world community towards Kashmir but its repercussions for the local population have proved terribly damaging. Instead of bringing some hope of peace the increasing violence has brought lots of miseries to the people of Kashmir. Unfortunately continuous blood shed does not seem to be ending in near future. It is taking lives of common people, intellectuals and what not. The world is moving fast towards prosperity and progress but here in Kashmir effects of militancy are seen in new generation and the very life of Kashmiris has got strained in the conflict. This is not out of place to mention here that when the hostilities between India and Pakistan reached its peak after the Kargil conflict and the two countries were at the brink of an atomic war, the world community and powers used their good offices to stop the same. With the result the two countries found no way out except to start the dialogue process and settle the issue peacefully and amicably.
An atmosphere of trust was created when a veteran militant commander and groomed politician Abdul Majid Dar announced an historical unilateral ceasefire on behalf of the largest indigenous militant organization Hizb-ul-Mujahideen on 24th July 2000.
International Community, world powers and NGOs welcomed the Ceasefire and emphasized on both the countries to respond positively and avail the opportunity of solving the issue. When the modalities of the Ceasefire were being worked out between Hizb-ul-Mujahideen and Government of India and when the effect of Ceasefire brought a considerable relief to the people of Kashmir, a certain group with a vested interest based on both sides of Kashmir feeling disturbed and tried to sabotage the historical initiative taken in the direction of achieving peace.
The efforts of sabotage surfaced when Hizb-ul-Mujahideen Chief Syed Salahudin withdrew the Ceasefire and again paved the way for bloodshed. This withdrawal announcement of Ceasefire and the ideological differences resulted in vertical split of Hizb-ul-Mujahideen and provided an opportunity to Zaffar Akbar Bhat, Chairman (Jammu Kashmir Salvation Movement) to emerge as the moderate organization.
On the basis of this moderate ideology, we re-organized the jail release freedom fighters and gave it a shape of a political organization. Thereafter on 29th May 2002 we announced the formal launching of this political organization under the name “Jammu Kashmir Salvation Movement” with the aims and objectives as under:
  • Salvation Movement is a political organization working under a democratic constitution and would function irrespective of the barriers of caste, creed and colour.
  • Salvation Movement provides a political platform to all those who shun violence and fight politically for the just solution of Jammu and Kashmir dispute.
  • Salvation Movement is putting in all efforts to rehabilitate all ex-freedom fighters.
  • Salvation Movement believes that solution of Jammu and Kashmir will be found in tripartite talks between India Pakistan and Kashmirs as its prime party.
From the day of its formation Salvation Movement suffered heavy losses of its cadres and leaders at the hands of some unidentified forces and Indian security agencies. Below mentioned are some names of activists of the organization who sacrificed their lives for the ideology of Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement.
This is how a political and a moderate organization is targeted and its cadres are assassinated one by one. It is not understood as to what causes is being served by eliminating the real force of the current movement who upheld the ideas of peace, reconciliation and negotiation rather than the violence and confrontation.
The Jammu and Kashmir Salvation Movement (JKSM) appeals to the Governments of India and Pakistan, world community, UN Secretary General and all the NGOs fighting against violence and inhumanity to make efforts to safeguard the lives of those who work for a peaceful, political and just solution of Kashmir dispute and for the honour and dignity of people of Jammu and Kashmir.